IR Mapper consolidates reports of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors

Insecticide resistence a growing threat

Progress in malaria control in the past decade can be attributed largely to the massive scale-up of insecticide-based interventions targeting malaria-carrying mosquitoes. According to the Malaria Atlas Project, 663 million cases of malaria have been averted between 2000 and 2015 by malaria control interventions. An estimated 78% can be attributed to vector control interventions: 68% (451 million cases) were averted by LLINs and 10% (66 million cases) were averted by IRS.

The emerging and rapid spread of insecticide resistance threatens the utility of LLINs and IRS. The effectiveness of these tools must be maintained if global progress against malaria is to be sustained and increased.

Up-to-date information on insecticide resistance must be used to guide the deployment of insecticidal tools to ensure the right tool is used in the right place at the right time. Malaria control policy makers and researchers have called for a user-friendly approach to visualizing and exploring up-to-date information on insecticide resistance.

Launched in 2012, IR Mapper, an online geospatial mapping platform, collates and consolidates published, peer-reviewed resistance data in malaria vectors onto a single platform.

What Is IR Mapper ?

IR Mapper is a tool used to view results from standardized insecticide resistance tests (WHO susceptibility tests and CDC bottle assays) on malaria mosquitoes collected from sites throughout the world. It can also be used to view results from investigations (molecular, biochemical and synergist assays) of insecticide resistance mechanisms (target site or overexpressed metabolic enzymes) in malaria mosquitoes.

Users are also able to view their new data from insecticide susceptibility and resistance mechanisms tests alongside existing published data. For all reports, insecticide susceptibility status is based on the updated WHO criteria (<90% mortality = confirmed resistance).

How It Works

IR Mapper is an interactive map for visualizing data from insecticide susceptibility and resistance mechanisms tests. It can be used to:

  • View published data from 1954 to present
  • View own data from a template

Other functions include:

  • Display of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax endemicity layers
  • Zoom to view additional map details
  • Pop-up boxes for each individual point that show assay details and link to the data source (publication)
  • Option to switch basemaps and switch on/off main menus
  • Printing of tailored maps

Browser Compatibility

We recognize that users may have varied preferences in browsers. However, for the best experience on IR Mapper, we recommend using Internet Explorer 11 and above, Firefox 28 and above, Chrome, Opera and Safari browsers.

How To View Own Data

Users can view their own data on the map alongside existing published data. The 'View Own Data' tab located at the bottom right offers the following menu:

  1. Instructions for filling out the users data template
  2. Download template function to access the .csv users data template file
  3. Add my data option to direct to the location of the saved .csv file containing the users data. (The other option is to drag and drop the file on the application).
  4. Clear my data to revert to the online dataset.

Note that users' data are not stored or added to the database. Users data are also cleared once the browser is closed.

Data Sources

Data are extracted monthly from peer reviewed scientific publications and other published reports including the President’s Malaria Initiative Country Insecticide Susceptibility Summaries and IRBase (a section of VectorBase). Note: some countries have no published records on insecticide resistance and hence data are not currently reported on IR Mapper.

Plasmodium endemicity map layers were provided by the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP). For more details, see:

  • Gething, P.W., Patil, A.P., Smith, D.L., Guerra, C.A., Elyazar, I.R.F., Johnston, G.L., Tatem, A.J. and Hay, S.I. (2011) A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010. Malaria Journal, 10: 378.
  • Gething, P.W., Elyazar, I.R.F., Moyes, C.L., Smith, D.L., Battle, K.E., Guerra, C.A., Patil, A.P., Tatem, A.J., Howes, R.E., Myers, M.F., George, D.B., Horby, P., Wertheim, H.F.L., Price, R.N., Müeller, I., Baird, J.K.A. and Hay, S.I. (2012) A long neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010. Public Library of Science Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6(9): e1814

IR Mapper is a joint initiative. Data collection and collation is performed by Vestergaard, data proofreading is conducted by KEMRI/CDC and the interactive map platform was developed by ESRI Eastern Africa (collectively “IR Mapper”).

Disclaimer: Data provided by the IR Mapper application is to the best of IR Mapper’s knowledge correct and true. However, the data has been produced by using, and in reliance on, information furnished by third parties and such information has not been independently validated, verified or confirmed by IR Mapper. Thus, IR Mapper makes no representation or warranty (express or implied) to any User of this website in relation to the data, and IR Mapper’s expressly disclaims any liability whatsoever (whether in contract, tort or otherwise) to any User. If published data appear to be missing or there are errors, kindly contact us with further information.


Data and maps from the IR Mapper application may not be used for any commercial purpose whatsoever without IR Mapper’s prior express written approval for each use. If such data and maps are to be used for non-commercial purposes (including without being limited to publications), the following citation shall be conspicuously provided by User of the IR Mapper application:

Source: IR Mapper (www.irmapper.com) Date, and to the extent that such data and maps include also user’s own data, this shall be clearly indicated.

Latest News

You can now navigate with ease on the updated IR Mapper website (2016)

Insecticide categories now aligned with recently-updated WHO resistance monitoring procedures

IR Mapper now incorporates resistance data from CDC bottle bioassays

IR Mapper now incorporates synergist assays documenting overexpression of metabolic enzymes

IR Mapper now incorporates Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax endemicity layers as well as EIR layers from Malaria Atlas Project, UK

WHO susceptibility test data now aligned with the recently-updated WHO resistance monitoring protocol (2013)


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